Travel in Anatolia – Turkey Bridge of Middle East & Europe

İstanbul – Galata Mevlevi House (Mevlevihane) Museum

Galata Mevlevi House (Mevlevihane) Museum (İstanbul city center)

MUSEUM OF CLASSICAL OTTOMAN (DIVAN) LITERATURE (GALATA MEVLEVİ LODGE)

The Galata Mevlevi Lodge (mevlevihane) or as it is also known the Kulekapı Mevlevi Lodge which is now serving as a museum, is one of the institutions which reflect the culture of the era in the best possible way. The Mevlevi Lodges which for centuries combined scholarship with music had a great influence on the Turkish culture. A great number of those people who came together in a Mevlevi Lodge environment were educated in various areas of fine arts and their names were remembered for a long time as far as science and scholarship was concerned. The Mevlevi Lodge which is located at the top of the steep street going down to Yüksekkaldırım is the oldest Mevlevi Lodge of İstanbul. It was built in 1491, on the hunting grounds of İskender Pasha who was a governor – general during the times of Sultan Bayezid. Its first master was Mehmet Mehmed Sema-i Çelebi. The building was struck by fire during the reign of Sultan Mustafa III. (1766) but was replaced by the existing Mevlevi Lodge by the same Sultan. In later years, the building underwent repairs during the reigns of Sultans Selim III, Mahmud II and Abdüllmecid. The institution which carried out its activities until 1925 was once more restored between the years 1967 – 1972. The Mevlevi Lodge which was built as a complex contained rooms and spaces for pray chanting, dervish cells, the quarters of the master (şeyh), special prayer (namaz) area for the Sultan, the section for the female members, library, fountain for the public, clock room, kitchen, mausoleums and an enclosed graveyard.

Semahane (Ritual Prayer Hall)
On the entarence door of this wood structured section there is the restoration statement of Sultan Abdülmecid dated 1853. The building has an octagonal plan and a good sample of the baroque style of the 18th century. In this section Turkish musical instruments and works related to the Mevlevi culture are exhibited. In the upper section which is divided with wooden grills, the poems (divan) of the Classical Ottoman poets and manuscripts belonging to Şeyh Galib, İsmail Ankaravi, Esrar and Fasih Dedes and the poetess Leyla Hanım who were trained and educated at the Mevlevi Lodge are kept in chronological order. The quarters of the master (şeyh) and the special praying area for the Sultan are upstairs.

Dervish Cells
It is constructed with stone and consists of rooms in a row.

Mausoleums
Şeyh Galib Mausoleum; It was built by Halet Said Efendi at the beginning of the 19th century. It has a square plan. Mehmed Ruhi, Hüseyin, İsa Selim, Şarih-, İsmail Ankaravi who first annotated the Mesnevi and Şeyh Galib Efendi are buried here.

Halit Said Efendi Mausoleum; it was built at the same time as the other mausoleum. Has a square plan. Inside, Şeyh Kudretullah, Ataullah Efendi, Halit Said Efendi and Emine Esma Hanım who is the wife of Ubeydullah Efendi are burried.

Fountain and the Clock Room
They are located to the right of the entrance. The masonary structure was built in the early 19th century.

Library
It was built by Halet Said Efendi. It is on the top floor of the special prayer place and contains 3455 volumes.

Treasury (Graveyard)
Those who functioned as masters (şeyh) at the Mevlevi Lodge, their spouses, the “kudum” and “ney” playing musicians and poets who had “divans” (volume of collected poems) are burried here. The graves of Humbaracı Ahmed Pasha, İbrahim Müteeferrika who set up the first printing press in Turkey, the composer Vardakosta Seyyid Ahmet Ağa, Nayi Osman Dede, and the family members of Tepedelenli Ali Pasha are also here. The tomb stones are significant for their inscriptions and decorations.

This informations was taken from Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Culture And Tourism and arrangement by Travel in Anatolia

Ankara – Theatre Stage, Hall and Hippodromes in Capital City

Turkish State Theatres Stages, Halls, Hippodromes and Play (Ankara city)

Ankara is Capital city of Republic of Turkey (or write with Turkish – Türkiye).

1936 Turkish Republic State Theatre est. in Theatre and Opera conservatoire

1940 Theatre and Opera Pratical Hall establish

With musical, dram or comedy play, season from October to July. A lot of play language Turkish but some play language English or German. Some Turkish plays with English subtitle.

Ankara, State Theatre Stages, Halls and Hippodromes address and phone information:

75. Yıl Sahnesi (75th year Theatre Hall): Mithatpaşa cad. No: 18, Kızılay (district name) – Çankaya (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 432 27 46

Akün Sahnesi (Akün Theatre Hall): Atatürk Bulvarı No: 227, Kavaklıdere (district name) – Çankaya (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 427 19 71

Altındağ Tiyatrosu (Altındağ Theatre Hall): Babür Cad. No: 40, Altındağ (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 316 59 02

Büyük Tiyatro (Big Theatre Hall): Atatürk Bulvarı No: 50, Opera Meydanı (square) – Ulus (district name) – Altındağ (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 324 22 10

Cüneyt Gökçer Sahnesi (Cüneyt Gökçer Theatre Hall): 35. Cadde Arcadium İş Merkezi Arkası, Çayyolu – Ümitköy (district name) – Yenimahalle (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 240 00 91 (This theatre hall old name before 2010, was 125th Year Theatre Hall)

İrfan Şahinbaş Atölye Sahnesi (İrfan Şahinbaş Workshop Hall): Devlet Tiyatroları Sosyal Tesisleri, Macunköy (district name) – Yenimahalle (central county) – Ankara / Phone:  0312 397 30 24

Küçük Tiyatro (Small Theatre Hall): İstiklal Cad. Çirmen Sokak Vakıf Apt. No: 8, Opera Meydanı (square) – Ulus (district name) – Altındağ (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 311 11 69

Mahir Canova Sahnesi (Mahir Canova Theatre Hall): Kara Kuvvetleri Eğitim ve Doktrin Komutanlığı, Balgat (district name) – Çankaya (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 285 09 81

Muhsin Ertuğrul Sahnesi (Muhsin Ertuğrul Theatre Hall): Talatpaşa Bulvarı No: 167, Dikimevi (district name) – Çankaya (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 320 21 22

Oda Tiyatrosu (Room Theatre Hall): İstiklal Cad. Çirmen Sokak Vakıf Apt. No: 8, Ulus (district name) – Altındağ (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 311 11 69

Stüdyo Sahnesi (Studio Theatre Hall): Devlet Tiyatroları Sosyal Tesisleri, Macunköy (district name) – Yenimahalle (central county) – Ankara / Phone:  0312 397 30 24

Şinasi Sahnesi (Şinasi Theatre Hall): Tunus Cad. No: 92, Kavaklıdere (district name) – Çankaya (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 467 17 44

 

Ankara, Private Theatre Stages, Halls and Hippodromes address and phone information:

Sanatolia Sahnesi (Sanatolia Hall): AnkaMall Alışveriş Merkezi (eski Migros Alışveriş Merkezi), Akköprü (district name) – Çankaya (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 541 16 66

Nüans Tiyatro Sanat Evi (Nüans Theatre and Art Home): Mithatpaşa Cad. No: 18, Kızılay (district name) – Çankaya (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 431 10 98

Oluşum Tiyatrosu ve Drama Atölyesi (Oluşum Theatre and Drama Workshop Hall): Büklüm Sk. No: 22/5, Kavaklıdere (district name) – Çankaya (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 417 84 56

Ankara Sanat Tiyatrosu Sahnesi – AST (Ankara Art Theatre and Hall): Ihlamur Sokak, No: 6/B, Yenişehir (district name) – Çankaya (central county) – Ankara / Phone: 0312 417 76 76 / 0312 425 02 56

This informations was arrangement by Travel in Anatolia

Şanlıurfa – Şanlıurfa Archaelogy and Ethnography Museum

Şanlıurfa Archaelogy and Ethnographical Museum (Şanlıurfa city center – Turkey)

The idea of opening a museum in Şanlıurfa was first raised in 1948, and the initial steps to do so were taken by gathering together all the existing historical artefacts in a storage room at the Atatürk Primary School. In 1956, an area was allotted at the Şehit Nusret Elementary School to store these pieces. However, the clear insufficiency of this school storage space coupled with the need to put the Şanlıurfa region’s rich cultural assets on display led to the construction of a new museum building.

The museum’s construction started in 1965 in the Şehitlik district on an area measuring 1,500 square metres. After finishing touches, the display arrangements were put on, the museum opened its doors to visitors in 1969.

The Şanlıurfa region has a rich history, including a wealth of tumuli and the old settlements. The village of Harran, 44 kilometres to the south-east of Şanlıurfa’s city centre, is the most popular and interesting area with its authentic architecture, and it also lends its name to the local Harran Valley (Harran Ovası). Harran was continuously inhabited from as far back as 3000 B.C. all the way to 13 A.D.

The Rescue excavations were planned for the settlement areas lying under the Atatürk Dam, the Birecik Dam and the Kargamış Dam. Starting in 1987, foreign archaeologists conducted excavations at the Lidar Höyük and Hassek Höyük tumuli, the sites which were later submerged under the waters of the Atatürk Dam. The Şanlıurfa’s Museum Directorate financed the rescue excavations at the Çavi Field and the Nevali Çori.

Since 1996, the Şanlıurfa’s Museum Directorate has been supervising excavations at Tilbek Höyük, which is stated to be flooded by the Birecik Dam. The directorate is also scheduled to begin the rescue excavations at the Apameia ruins in 1998. Currently, the excavations are continuing in the Şanlıurfa’s Örencik village, Göbeklitepe; the Konuklu village, Kazane Höyük; the Gürcütepe Bozova township, the Bahceli village, Titris Höyük, and the Hacınebi ruins in Birecik.

As excavations unearthed new artefacts to be given to the Şanlıurfa Museum, space at its storage and display areas began to run out. It became necessary to make new additions to both the storage and the display space in order to protect these historical treasures in an appropriate manner. To accomplish this goal, the state bought some property near the museum’s grounds, and work on new additions to the building began.

The additions to the museum included three halls for the archaeological specimens and one for the ethnographic pieces. There were also administrative units, a hall for hosting conferences and exhibitions, and a library on its ground and the first floors. In the basement, storage areas, laboratories, and a photography area were built. This additional building, which has modern displays, was opened to the publicors in 1987.

Besides the artefacts discovered in the excavations in the village of Harran, other historical and cultural pieces found in other old settlements and tumuli are also exhibited in separate displays arrayed in chronological order. At the entrance, there are pieces which have survived from the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Hittite eras. In the second and the third halls, bothof them the archaeological sections, there are also:

-Sharp tools used for cutting or piercing things, along with stone idols and cups from the Neolithic Age (8000 B.C.-5000 B.C.);

-Painted and unpainted ceramic objects made out of cooked clay and decorated with geometric patterns, as well as seals, pithoses (amphorae vessels buried alongside the dead), and necklace beads made out of faience (tiles) from the Chalcolithic Age (5000 B.C.-3000 B.C.);

-Amphorae pieces marked with seals, cylindrical and stamp seals, cup pieces decorated with figurines, plus animal figurines, metal objects, Jewellery and idols from the Bronze Age (3,000 B.C. and 2000 B.C).

The museum’s ethnographic section has on display the traditional costumes of the Şanlıurfa region, silver and bronze Jewellery, examples of the region’s handcrafts, wooden doors and window frames with inscriptions carved on them in the Şanlıurfa style, specimens of the calligraphic art, and the handwritten copies of the Koran.

In the courtyard of the Şanlıurfa Museum, archaeological pieces are displayed in chronological order. On the front side, there is a mosaic pool decorated with depictions of animals.

Address: Bahçelievler Mahallesi Çamlık Cad. Şanlıurfa / Turkey

Phone: +90 414 313 15 88

Fax: +90 414 314 16 42

Except monday everyday you can visit. Winter (1 Oct – 30 Apr) period 08.30 – 12.00 / 13.00 – 16.30 Summer (1 May – 30 Eyl) period 08.00 – 12.00 / 13.00 – 17.00

This informations was taken from Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Culture And Tourism and arrangement by Travel in Anatolia

Balıkesir – Kuvayi Milliye (National Forces) Museum

Kuvayi Milliye (National Forces) Museum – (Balıkesir city center – Turkey)

The building, which was used as the Municipality Building until it became the Kuva-yi Milliye (National Forces) Museum, was built in 1840, for the Treasury Officer of the provincial subdistrict of Karesi, Mehmet Pasha, as a lodge. Later on, in the late 19th century, it vanished in a fire. Mehmet Paşa’s (Pasha’s) grandson Halit Paşa (Pasha) built a new mansion in its place and during the Independence War it was utilized for important services.

After the occupation of İzmir on May 15th 1919, the people from Balıkesir gathered on the 16th of May 1919, declared the beginning of armed struggle and the flame of the National Forces issued forth from this building. It served the 2nd Army Corps Command and Ali Hikmet Paşa (Pasha) as Headquarters for many years. It became the operations centre for the İzmir Northern Fronts Committee. On 6 February 1923, Atatürk, on his first visit to Balıkesir, stayed in a building within the same compound, which was opened as the “Literacy House” in 1933 and, on 18 May 1998 was again opened to public service as “The Library of the History of the National Struggle”.

Kuva-yi Milliye Museum
The municipality, taking action in the years 1985 and 1986, issued board decrees to open the building as a museum. The building had been used as headquarters during the National Struggle. Later on, the use of this building was permanently given to the Directorate of the Historical Remains and Monuments of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. A protocol was signed between the Balıkesir Governor’s office and the Municipality on this issue.

Later on, after the establishment of the Directorate of the Museum, the restoration work was speeded up and the museum opened to the public on 6 September 1996.

The Kuva-yi Milliye Museum consists of two sections: in the ground floor with an area of 120 square metres, the decisions in writing taken by the 41 persons who were the initiators of the establishment of Kuva-yi Milliye in Balıkesir, the congress declarations, the personal effects of these heroic people and their photographs, and Atatürk’s photographs taken during his visit to Balıkesir are displayed. On the first floor, of the same areal space, the archeological and ethnographical objects of the region are exhibited.

Address: Anafartalar Avenue No.58 Balıkesir / Turkey

Phone: +90 266 243 31 81

Except monday everyday you can visit. Winter (1 Oct – 30 Apr) period 08.30 – 12.00 / 13.00 – 16.30 Summer (1 May – 30 Eyl) period 08.00 – 12.00 / 13.00 – 17.00

This informations was taken from Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Culture And Tourism and arrangement by Travel in Anatolia

Isparta – Yalvaç Archaelogy and Ethnographical Museum

Yalvaç Archaelogy and Ethnographical Museum (Yalvaç county – Isparta city – Turkey)

A- History
As well as the historical works in Yalvaç and its surroundings, Yalvaç Museum, where the historical works obtained from this region, has a great importance. The first studies for the establishment of a museum have been started in 1947. In this year, the ethnographic and archaeological works have been collected and taken under protection in a warehouse. After that, the construction of a museum building has been decided and the museum has been taken into service in 1966.

B- Internal Exhibition
1. Gallery: Section of Prehistoric Works
Depasses, rhytons, vases, water jugs, handled cups and other cups showing various forms belonging to the Old Bronze Period obtained from the surroundings of Yalvaç and from Çamharman (Köstük) Tumulus that is 19 km to the district (3000 BC) are among the interesting works of this section. Typical earthenware cup samples of Göller Region are exhibited in a separate showcase. Furthermore, human and animal figures made of cooked earth, marble idols, stone hand axes, bone tools and seals belonging to various periods are exhibited. The fossils of various animals of prehistoric period (8th thousand BC) obtained during a research carried out in Tokmacık provide a separate importance for the museum.

2. Great Hall: Section of Classical Works
In this section, the works has been subjected to a chronological placement in accordance with their periods. Among the works starting from the Greek Period and coming until the Byzantine Period, there are vases made of cooked earth, drink cups, various grave findings made of cooked soil belonging to the 5th and 4th century are exhibited in separate showcases. In other showcases, god and goddess sculptures made of cooked earth, marble and bronze, animal figures, vowing inscriptions, oil candles, bracelets, ring stones made of valuable stones, metal rings and some Jewellery belonging to the Byzantine period are being exhibited. Golden, silver and bronze coin collections belonging to various periods are among the works drawing attention. Furthermore, in this section, a corner consisting of sculptures, busts and reliefs has been designed.

3. Small hall: Section of Ethnographic Works
In this section, where Anatolian and Yalvaç hand arts are introduced, golden, silver and nacre inlaid pistols, rifles, cutting and perforating guns (swords, daggers, bows and arrows) and protective guns (armors and helmets) are exhibited. Hand woven wool socks, coloured hand towels, drawstrings and towels, cotton head scarves, velvet, gilded silver ornamented bindallı clothes, clothes, embroidered jackets and jackets; üçetek (kind of dress worn by women over şalvar) are among the works coloring this section. The ornamental goods of women made of gold, silver and baphon are exhibited in a separate showcase. Some copper kitchen tools that are samples of Ottoman copper workmanship constitute another evidence for the wealth of the section. Furthermore,” the 18th century Yalvaç House” that has been arranged in accordance with Yalvaç traditions provide sufficient information to the visitors in relation with the aesthetic style of the generations before us.

4. Internal Balcony: Section of Hand – written Works
Plates, Korans, rare books belonging to the beautiful writing art applied by the Turkish artisans in Islamic Period, are among the wealth of this section.

5. Hall: Painting Gallery
In this section of the museum, a collection consisting of the pictures of Turkish painters are exhibited.

6. Hall: Open Exhibition
Architectural parts, grave steles, sarcophagi, osthotecs, altars, inscriptions, sculptures and mile stones belonging to the Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman periods are exhibited in the porch and the garden. Furthermore, the road in the garden with columns consisting with columns with heads provides an interesting appearance to the museum.

Address: Hükümet Cad. No. 4 Yalvaç county / Isparta / Turkey

Phone:  +90 246 441 50 59

Fax: +90 246 411 49 37

Except monday everyday you can visit. Winter (1 Oct – 30 Apr) period 08.30 – 12.00 / 13.00 – 16.30 Summer (1 May – 30 Eyl) period 08.00 – 12.00 / 13.00 – 17.00

This informations was taken from Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Culture And Tourism and arrangement by Travel in Anatolia

Uşak – Atatürk and Ethnographical Museum

Uşak city Atatürk and Ethnographical Museum (Uşak city center – Turkey)

The Atatürk and Ethnographical Museum is situated in Hisarkapi Uluyolu (street), the Bozkurt district of the Uşak province. The building was constructed during 1890’s. The building belonging to one of the important families of Uşak, known as Kaftancızadeler, was used as the headquarters during the Independence War.

Atatürk received the Greek Armies Commander in Chief Trikopis in this building and also received the General’s weapon and sword together with his general staff officers İsmet Pasha (İsmet Inönü), Dadaylı Halit (Halit Akmansu), Asım Pasha (Asım Gündüz). Despite of being a prisoner of war, the commander in chief Trikopis was welcomed with Turkish hospitability.

After being nationalised in the middle of 1970’s, the building was opende as the Atatürk and Ethnographical Museum on 1 September 1978.

In the entrance floor of the two-storey wooden house local ethnographical materials, historical Usak carpets and Esme kilims, old weapons, wearing apparel and other articles are exhibited.

The first floor has been organized completely as the Atatürk Museum. Mirrors of that period, coffee tables, armchairs, the bedroom used by Atatürk and wearing apparel of Atatürk are displayed on this floor.

Address: Bozkurt Mahallesi Hisarkapı Sokak. No: 77 Uşak / Turkey

Phone: +90 276 227 28 89

Except monday everyday you can visit. Winter (1 Oct – 30 Apr) period 08.30 – 12.00 / 13.00 – 16.30 Summer (1 May – 30 Eyl) period 08.00 – 12.00 / 13.00 – 17.00

This informations was taken from Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Culture And Tourism and arrangement by Travel in Anatolia

Uşak – Uşak Archaelogy Museum

Uşak Archaelogy Museum (Uşak city center – Turkey)

Until the year 1970, its duty was to be a civil servant of the museum in the structure of the Directorate of National Education. At that time, there was no museum buildings in Uşak. Services were being carried out at the building of the Public Education and the collected works were being kept here. In 1966, it was suggested to build a museum in our province; the museum area was nationalized in the same year and the construction of the building was started in 1967 and completed in 1969. In 1970, the exhibition and arrangement of the building were completed and on May 23rd, 1970, it was opened to service as the Museum Directorate of Uşak.

The sculptures belonging to the Old Bronze Period, the beak – mouthed ewers and stone – made axes are being exhibited in a showcase in the exhibition hall. The works in the other showcases are the earthenware pots and glass – made works, which have both remained from the Hellenistic and Roman Periods.

The works, which are open – exhibited in the exhibition hall, are generally the grave stelae, vow stelae and atonement inscriptions belonging to the Roman Period. Nevertheless, the sculptures brought from the ruin place named Blaundus are also in the same area. In the other showcase of the hall, gold Jewellery, diadems, glass pots, coins belonging to every period, which are either confiscated or provided by the citizens and which are obtained from rescue excavations performed by the Uşak Museum are located.

In the remaining part of the exhibition hall, which is approximately half of the hall, the Lydian treasures, called as “Karun Treasure”, which were smuggled to the United States from the surroundings of Uşak in the 2nd half of 1960s and which were brought back to our country in 1993 as the result of the case brought by the Ministry of culture, are exhibited.

In the first showcase, silver works collected from İkiztepe tumulus in 1966; in the second showcase golden works abducted from the Toptepe tumulus in 1965 and in the third showcase the Lydian works provided from the excavation performed by the Uşak Museum in the Basmacı tumulus are exhibited. Besides these works, the klines of the grave rooms, volutes and grave doors are exhibited in open area.

Address: Kurtuluş Mah. Doğan Sok. No:1 Uşak / Turkey

Phone: +90 276 212 18 41

Fax: +90 276 227 39 81

Except monday everyday you can visit. Winter (1 Oct – 30 Apr) period 08.30 – 12.00 / 13.00 – 16.30 Summer (1 May – 30 Eyl) period 08.00 – 12.00 / 13.00 – 17.00

This informations was taken from Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Culture And Tourism and arrangement by Travel in Anatolia

Antalya – Perge Theatre “Skene” Museum

Perge Theatre “Skene” Museum (Aksu county – Antalya city – Turkey)

Perge Theatre excavations were carried out by a Turkish team between 1985 and 1993. During excavations, besides the Dionysos frieze existing in its original location now, Kentauromakhia and Gigantomakhia friezes were found and also numerous architectural structures were discovered.

There are two main building stages at Perge Theatre. It was discovered that the stage building was designed as a two storey building in the beginning, then the third storey was added; and during that period “proskenion” were reexamined, when architectural construction and decorations were reconsidered. It is understood that decorations were completed within certain times and re-decorated during other periods.

Due to characteristics of architectural composition and superiority, the gods were located on the third floor of the Gigantomakhia frieze, and on the second floor of the Kentauromakhia frieze. The sacrifice scene is on the “Porta Regina”.

Construction and repair stages of Perge Theatre have not been dated other than according to style characteristics of the structures in Anatolia through comparison, as no record about the building has been discovered. According to this comparison the first stage building’s construction was started about A.D. 170’s, and completed during the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus in A.D. 193-211. Then one more floor was added to this building. As almost all decorations of the third floor have characteristics of the Severus period, the second building stage is believed to have been conducted during the reigns of Emperor Severus Alexander (A.D. 222-235) or Maximinus Thrax (A.D. 235-238).

It is seen that detailed work continued between A.D. 235-240 and 260-265 during reign of Emperor Gallienus. Due to war state treasures were brought to Perge by Emperor Tacitus during A.D. 275-276, the economical condition improved and the theatre was reexamined and stage building details and “changes made for water sports” were designed during that period.

“Proskenion” and collected material on the first floor indicate that the stage building was repaired during Late Roman period. The collected materials are of the latest A.D. 450-475 period, which causes archaeologits to think that the building was repaired later. In addition, architectural similarity of the locationwholly renewed during Emperor Iustinianus’ reign but not having too high embossing leads scientists to date it to earlier periods, and therefore last building activities must have been conducted during the periods of Emperor Marcianus (A.D. 450-457) and Iustinianus (A.D. 527-565).

The sculptures discovered during excavations were located in niches in the stage building according to their specific location and are indicated in the board.

HISTORY OF PERGE THEATRE:
I. Building Stage : A.D. 170-211
II. Building Stage : A.D. 222-238
Continuance of detailed studies : A.D. 235-265
Continuance of detailed studies and changes : A.D. 275-300/305
Restorations : A.D. 450/475-527

Isparta – Yalvaç – Psidia Antiokheia Site Ruins Museum

Psidia Antiokheia Site Ruins Museum (Yalvaç county – Isparta city – Turkey)

Antiokheia is a Pisidia city established on the productive land lying along the southern slopes of Sultan Mountains at approximately 1 km north of Yalvaç District of Isparta Province.

Antiokehia is a Seleukos colony just as Apolloia, but its date of establishment is not known precisely. This city has been established by Seleukos the 1st or his son Antiokhos. At a date between the years 39 and 36 BC, Antiokheia has gone under the control of Amyntas and has been included in Galatia state just as all other cities of the region upon his being killed in 25 BC.

Antiokheia has become a Roman colony with the name Colonia Caesarea in 25 BC or some time later. The city, as proved by many Latin inscriptions, has protected this status for more than two hundred years.

The inscriptions arranged for the emperor and his legates evidence that Latin has been used as the official language until 295 AD. But the protocols of decurios (state senator) after that date are mostly written in Greek. Latin expressions are seen on coins until the end of the time of Claudius II (268 – 270 AD). After that, Latin has left its place to Greek. In the inscriptions and the vows devoted to God Men, it is seen that Latin is used very rare in comparison to Greek.

In accordance with the estimations of I.A. Richmond and R.G. Collingwood, the population in the city centre was about 7500 – 10.000. B. Levick claims that there were more than 3.000 retired soldiers. But, we can say that a population of 30 -40 thousand lived in the large borders of Antiokheia.

Antiokheia has been the metropolis of enlarged Pisidia state that was established just at the end of the 3rd century AD. As understood from the church records, the city has preserved its importance in the Byzantine period.  The known earliest coins of the city are dated to the end of the 1st century BC. There are not many minted coins in the first 150 years of the colony period. As well as the coins before the colony period, they are mostly related with God Men. The expression “colonia” exist on the coins. Coin minting has continued until Cladius II. We understand that the economical situation of the city reached the top point thanks to this coin minting.

In 713 AD, the city, which has been subject to the invasion of Arabs, has been destroyed. The ruin traces and findings obtained as the result of the excavations evidence this event in history. It is possible to follow the history of the city until the 13th century. But it is seen that starting from the second half of this century, a part of the public immigrated to Yalvaç, which has productive lands, and another part has moved to other states.

Definition of the City
Antiokheia is 1236 m high from the sea level, on a branch of Sultan Mountains, on a hill seeing the Anthios Valley lying in northern- southern direction. The eastern, southern and northern slopes of this hill having a height of 120 m are very steep, therefore the city could be reached easily only from the western side.

The surface of the acropolis is not flat and there are some hills, in other words seven hills in eastern – western, northern and southern directions. Most of the buildings are located on the slopes of these hills and in small valleys.

It is interesting that grid city plan is skillfully applied in Antiokheia making use of the natural condition of the land. The archaic city has a small number of buildings that could survive. These are generally in the form of base ruins.

In the city walls, axis from south to north and from east to west be drawn and planning has been carried out in accordance with these axes. The street going from south to north is called Decumanus Maximus and the main street going from east to west is called Cardo Maximus. We see that they are narrow, but straight streets opening to the main streets in the city plan.

The two main avenues of the city were in the east of the city and in the focus. First of these was the avenue in front of Augustus Temple, which was given the same name, and the second is the Tiberius avenue, which is in the west of the first avenue. Between these two avenues, the propylon placed longitudinally is located. Another third avenue is in front of the nymphaeum.

In the north of the city, the Roman bath – palaestra and nymphaeum are located. On the slopes of the hill in the east, Augustus Temple and avenue, propylon, Tiberius Avenue is located and in the west of Tiberius Avenue, the street with columns is located. In the northwest of the street with columns there is the bouleuterion, and in the southwest of it, there is a theatre. The small church is in the north of the theatre. The houses are scattered around the city centre and suitable parts of the land. The ruins of one of the most ancient churches of Anatolia (St. Paul) in the west of the city have reached today. Since no large excavations have been made in Antiokheia, we do not have sufficient information relating to the other building ruins.

The northwestern city walls are at the base level and the southwestern and southern city walls are partially strong. The western door, which is the main door of the city combines with city walls on two sides. The second door of the city is in the south. The northern door, which is narrower, is connected with the bath. The water arches are in the north of the city.

City Walls
Antiokheia is established on a high hill and is surrounded with a completely oval city wall. The length of the city walls, which are partially strong today and whose base ruins can be seen, is 2.920 m. With the parts that can not be seen, the entire length of the city walls reaches 3.000 m. The area surrounded by the city walls is 47 hectares.

When attention is paid to the city walls, it is seen that the city wall thickness reaches an average of 1.50 m at locations having a high land slope and of 4.75 – 5.50 m at other locations.

It is understood from the ruins reached today that the first city walls constructed in the Hellenistic Period have been enlarged in Roman and Byzantine periods.

Western Door
The most magnificent door of the city was located in the west of the city. It is in the form of a three – opening passage having two side pylons and two mid pylons. The body dimensions of the legs carrying the vaults are 3.20 x 2.36 m and the bases of the legs are limited with moldings and constructed simply and smoothly. It is understood that there were plasters ornamented with plant motifs on both sides of the legs having 4 m openings. The focus of the front side was constituted by two reliefs of parts carrying flags and standards, which were on their knees towards each other in the triangular spandrels on both sides of the arch in the middle and on plasters. Furthermore, there were Nikes carrying girlands on the plasters.

The inscription “Gaius Lulius Asper Con. 212″ is placed on the wide side of the staged architrave of the western door looking outside the city with bronze relief letters. On the fritz on the architrave, Triton, Amazon Shield (both ends in the form of eagle head), armor and various gun reliefs are placed.

The second fritz on this is ornamented with plant motifs. The monumental door must have been constructed in 212 BC as understood from both its structural form and the inscription on it.

Southern Door
It is constructed in the south of the city at the most suitable location for access to Anthios Valley. A very small amount of architectural ruins have reached today, which is understood to have a single entrance.

Northern Door
It is approximately 70 m far from the northwestern corner of the city wall and looks towards the northern direction. Only base ruins of the single – passage door can be seen. No ornamental elements could be seen on the door, which we estimate to be constructed with the city walls. It is absolute that secondary doors with small dimensions used for entrance, except these doors.

Augustus Temple
The temple was constructed in the holy area at the highest location of the city after the death of Emperor Augustus. The base of the building is formed by cutting the natural rock. The temple that was on a podium having a height of 2.50 m was reached with a 12 – step stair. The cellar formed by carving the internal part of the natural rock forming the temple podium had the dimensions 5.65 x 7.90 m and a depth of 2 m, and probably it was a place where vowing goods were preserved.

Behind the temple, there was a gallery having two floors formed by carving in the natural rock in the form of a semi circle. In the lower floor, columns in Dor arrangement and in the upper floor columns in Ionian arrangement are used. In front of the temple, there is an avenue having the dimensions 63 x 85 m, which is called with the name of the emperor. The base traces of the galleries having columns with 5 m widths, which are located on the northern and southern sides of the avenue, can be seen today. The findings obtained both from the inscriptions and from the ornamental workmanship show that the construction activities continued long period from the Tiberius Period until the Cladius Period.

Propylon
It is constructed at the intersection point of Augustus Avenue and Tiberius Avenue.The propylon having three vaults, constructed in the form of a victory arch, has been constructed in the honor of Emperor Augustus and was ornamented with sculptures and reliefs symbolizing the victories won by him on the sea and land.

The monumental entrance door was reached with a 12 – step stair from Tiberius Avenue. The passage vaults rest on four legs, two of which are on the sides and two of which are in the middle. The dimensions of the legs on two sides are 2.25 x 3 m and the dimensions of the legs in the middle are 2.50 x 3 m. The base openings of the legs were 3.50 m on the sides, but reached 4.50 m in the mid part. The bases of the legs were limited with moldings and there were four columns with Korinth heads in front of the vault legs and there were architrave and fritz on them.

In the triangular spandrels on both sides of the arch in the middle, two Pisidian prisoners, one clothed, other naked, whose hands are tied on the back and who are on their knees are depicted as high reliefs on plasters. The space in front of the reliefs is filled with a torch and a garland. In the arch spaces on the sides, winged Eros and Nike reliefs carrying girland are located.It is understood that the inscription (IMP CAES AVGVSTO PONTIFEX MAX TRIBUNICA POTESTATE XII CON.) was written on the central part of the staged architrave with bronze relief letters. A two – trithon group is located on the centre of each under – arch way of the fritz continuing on the architrave and legs. Furthermore, on the plasters located on the column heads ornamented with various animal reliefs, war ships, shields, god depictions such as Poseidon and Demetre are located.

It is estimated that giant clothed man and woman sculptures were placed on the base over the fringe set including various moldings and reliefs. These sculptures are being exhibited today.

The testament of Augustus “Res Gestae Divi Augusti”, which he wrote before his death, gives the summary of the works he has performed during his life. A copy of this text in Latin was placed in this building. Many inscription parts have been found during the excavation.
It is the most reasonable to date the monumental entrance door to the mid of the 1st century BC in stylistic point of view, since the inscription on the architrave supports this idea.

Tiberius Avenue
Tiberius Avenue, located at the eastern end of the street with columns was surrounded by the monumental stairs of propylon in the east; and by the galleries with columns in the north and south.

The main entrance of this place, whose base ruins we see today, was in the western direction and opened to the street with columns. This avenue, where the social life of the city continued, has seen the strike of the soldiers in 16 AD. The Roman soldiers desiring the improvement of life conditions have destroyed a part of the water arches and repaired the water arch themselves after obtaining their wills.

Street with Columns
The street with columns, constituting the spine of the city in Antiokheia, starts at 75 m north of the crossroads where the two main streets intersect and from the east of the second main street and continues until Tiberius avenue. The main street having a pavement has a width of almost 11 m and a length of 69 m. There are portics having depths of 5.50 m in the south and 5.60 m in the north on the left and right of the street and base ruins of 5 m have been determined where the shops were located behind these portics.

The presence of sculpture bases on the street with columns shows that the street was ornamented with sculptures in the archaic period. Furthermore, the water ways made of stone and earthenware pipes transferring the spring waters under the shops on both sides, other than the canal passing through the mid of the street and to which waste water was disposed, draw attention. The stylistic and structural features of the street with columns makes us think that it belongs to the mid of the 1st century AD, which are the development phases of the empire.

Theatre
The theatre, constructed on the slopes of a hill near the city centre, is at a location that sees the whole city. It is a building that has been subject to the greatest damage among the ruins in the ruin places. Antiokheia theatre is seen to consist of three main sections, as every archaic theatre.
1- Sitting rows arranged in the form of a semi circle for the audience (cavea)
2- An area in the form of a semi circle (orchestra)
3- Stage building where the plays are shown (scene).

Sitting Stages of the Theatre
The front side of the building has a length of approximately 105 m in the northwestern direction.The round perimetre at the back has an average length of 185m. The sitting stages in the northern direction had been placed on natural land slope by carving the slope of the hill, but the sitting stages in the south (in order to make the land compliant with the shape of the theatre) had been placed on an infrastructure consisting of vaults and arches (substruction). On the other hand, the main street of the city in east – west direction (Cardo Maximus) passing through a vaulted tunnel, which is a case that we do not see in other theatres, is very interesting. The length of this closed tunnel is 56 m and its width is 8m. It was enlarged in the Roman Period and the main street has remained under the theatre.

In accordance with the ruins that are existent today, we estimate that the theatre had a capacity of 5000 persons and it is thought that the theatre has been divided with a circular strap (diasoma) and that there existed six intermediate stairs, four of which were in the middle and two of which were on the sides, between the stairs assigned for the audiences for sitting consisting of 26 steps.

Orchestra: It has the shape of almost a semicircle. It has a diametre of 35 m. In accordance with the current condition of the sitting rows, it is 1.10 m below and it is seen that stone is laid on the ground.

Stage Building (Scene): from the base ruins, it is determined that it had a projection towards the front side from the main theatre and that it had 12 x 55 m dimensions and a rectangular plan. The base structure, which is covered with a thick rubble layer today, has been subject to a great damage. But from the architectural parts obtained, it is understood that the front architecture was ornamented and covered with relieved fritzes.
The ruins that can be seen today must belong to the beginning of the 4th century AD.

Roman Bath
It is in the northwestern corner of the city. The building is constructed in compliance with the shape of the land and therefore it has irregular rectangular plan.

It is seen that the building consists of two parts one of which is palaestra and the other is the bath. Palaestra is in front of the closed bath building. The surface area of the mid courtyard, whose three sides are estimated to be surrounded with porches, is 20 x 33 m but it increases to 37 x 29 m with porches. Since sufficient architectural parts could not be obtained except the stone laid base, we do not have enough information relating to the upper structure architecture. As the result of the researches we have carried out, it has been understood that the closed bath part building was connected to the palaestra as a whole and consisted of three parts as in the case of other bath structures of the period.
1- Frigidarium (cold part)
2- Tepidarium (mild part)
3- Caldarium (hot part)

Except these, it is absolute that dressing places (apodeiterium), service parts, water facilities, boiler room and warehouses constituted the other parts. From the existing ruins of the building, it can be said that it belongs to the ends of the 1st century AD or the beginning of the 2nd century AD.

Stadium
It is located at the skirts of Sultan Mountain, in the west of the acropolis. The length of the stadium is 190 m and its width is 30m. The building has a plan in the form of a “horse shoe”. The city stadium has been constructed in the Hellenistic Period and repaired in the 2nd century AD.

The stadium has played an important role since the archaic periods in the life of Antiokheia people. Here, various games, especially athletics, wrestling and boxing took place here. The gladiator and wild animal games were also popular in the Roman world in the 3rd – 4th centuries AD. These games took place in the theatres and stadiums later.

St. Paul Church
It is the first and biggest church of Antiokheia and is next to the city wall, approximately 200 m southern of the Roman Bath.

The dimensions of the building, showing a basilical structure are 70 x 26 m. The abscissa orienting towards east and projecting beyond the location has a semicircular shape and has three nephs, one neph being in the middle and the other two narrow nephs being at the sides. The mid neph has the dimensions of 43.10 x 11.90 m and the side nephs have the dimensions of 43 x 4.93 m. The internal part of the building is divided into three parts having different sizes and the main part is separated from the narrow parts on the sides with thirteen columns on each side, hence these parts are supported with columns.

In the west of the church, there is a rectangular nartex having six columns in front of it, which is placed longitudinally. The length of the nartex is 8.90 m, and its width is 21 x 76 m. From this part, passage to mid neph is provided with a large door while passage to side nephs is provided with narrower doors.

As the result of the researches carried out, it has been understood that the mosaic covering the entire base of the church consisted of various colors and various motifs. Furthermore, this mosaic base is designed by F.J. Woodbridge. It is seen that five colors and three main motifs have been used in the base panels and in addition to them, geometrical and plant motifs have been used. Another feature drawing attention in the mosaics is the placement of four visible Greek inscriptions at the centre of the main place with mosaic. These inscriptions include the names and vows of the persons who have had the mosaic consisting of smaller terraces built and the assigned priests.

Optimus, whose name is mentioned in one of those inscriptions is one of the Orthodox leaders and has been the bishop in Antiokheia between the years 375 – 381 AD.

As known, St. Paul has given its first sermon with Barnabas in the Synagogue located under this church in order to spread Christianity. The church, which is devoted to St. Paul for this reason, is of great importance. On the other hand, we see the first church built on the synagogue, where St. Paul has given a sermon in order to spread the new religion, only in Antiokheia in Anatolia.

Small Church
The church, which is located at the centre of the city and 35 m west of the street with columns, has a plan that is shaped as a Latin cross. The building having an east – west direction, consists of a large neph in the middle, two nephs on the sides and a nartex.
The building has the dimensions of 43 x 25.50 m externally. The distance between the two side walls of the main location of the building that is 23 m long, is 15.50 m and these dimensions show us that the main place is tried to be kept as large as possible.The abscissa is located in the eastern end of the mid neph.

Nartex consists of a thin, long, rectangular place having dimensions of 6.50 x 23.50 m, which has been left with the extension of the neph walls towards both sides. From the base ruins on two sides of the semicircle abscissa of the church, we understand that it had pastophorion rooms. Hence, we see that the building is limited with a regular wall with these rooms, in other words the walls had a regular side. The three martyrs of this church (Neon, Nikon and Heliodorus) are mentioned on a seal found during the excavations. Furthermore, from the other side of this seal, it is understood that the priest who worked in this church for the first time had the name Basus. In terms of structure, plan and material, this church may have been constructed in the 5th century AD.

Nymphaeum
The monumental fountain is at the northern end of the south – North Street. The base ruins can be seen today. It is understood that the nymphaeum has been constructed in two parts, one of which is the face wall ornamented probably with column architecture on which the fountains are located and the other being the tank where the water is collected.

Behind the nymphaeum, the base ruins of the water tank having dimensions of 10 x 27 m are seen. The water collected in the tank was distributed to the city via pipes made of cooked earth, stone and lead. It has been determined as the result of the studies carried out that there were four fountains at certain locations in the city. It is understood from the ruins that the fountains behind the western door and Tiberius Avenue had a monumental structure.

As the result of the excavations, presence of a developed water system in Antiokheia has been brought into light. Nymphaeum may be constructed towards the end of the 1st century.

Water Arches
One of the most important structures of the city architecture is the water arches. The water need which increased in the Roman Period with the development and enlargement of the city, was met with the water way having an approximate length of 10 km lying along the northern direction of the city being taken from the spring, which is called “water well” today.

The water arches coming to the residence place complying with the topographic structure of the land end in the nymphaeum and met the water need of almost 2/3 of the city. The ruins belonging to the water arches are strong at some locations and draw attention with their careful and strong structures that astonish the persons seeing them.

The height of the strong arches differs between 5 – 7 m and the existing length is 250 m. The arch legs have 2.10 m dimensions and four metre height and are constructed with block stones without using any mortar. The openings between the two legs on which the arches rest differ between 4.70 – 3.80 m.

Since the upper structure of the water arches is completely destroyed, the structure of the canals through which water flew (canalis) is not known completely. But from the architectural parts obtained, it is understood that the water groove section was a circle having a diametre of 30 cm.
Based on some significant samples from various regions the dating of the water way goes back towards the end of the 1st century AD, when the water transfer systems became widespread in Roman states. In connection with the historical development of the city, it may be said to be constructed at the end of the 1st century AD.

Men Holy Area
It is established on a hill called as “Gemen Korusu” at 5 km to the district. Transportation is provided with vehicles. In the holy area, the history of the temple constructed in the name of “Moon God Men” goes back to the 4th century BC. There are 2 churches, stadium and houses out of this temple.

Men Temple
The Moon God Men is an old Anatolian God which is worshipped since the 3rd thousand BC. Men, which is a sky god is also the god of health and soothsaying.

Antiokheia is one of the most important centres of Men culture. The presence of a temple devoted to God Men here is very natural. Men holy area has been established on Karakuyu Hill that is 5 km southeastern of the city, before the establishment of Antiokheia.

The temple is located in an area with 43 x 72 m dimensions that is not exactly rectangular and that is surrounded with temenos walls. The width of the temple, which has 6 x 11 columns and which is a peripteros in Ionian style, is 7.95 m externally and the inner dimensions of the cella is 6.45 x 7.85 m. Crepidoma has 9 steps and the step depth is 35 cm while height is 25 cm. the base walls of the temple and some parts of the cella wall are strong. It is not known how opistodomos, that has almost equal size with the cella, is ended. Probably there were four columns with 75 cm diametre in front of the pronaos that is located in the west.

The worship reliefs on the external walls of the holy area resemble each other too much and have been made on a single sample. In almost all of them, the depiction of naiscos with acroter having two pillars is seen. There are one or more new moon motifs and bull heads on every relief. From the ones with inscriptions, it is understood that the number of new moons showed the number of worshipping persons.

In the infrastructure of the temple and in the temenos wall, local gray – coloured limestone is used and it is seen that marble has been used in the superstructure, which could not be reached today. The temple is dated to the beginning of the 3rd century BC. But this holy area has lived it’s most lively period in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD and is estimated to be destroyed in 400 AD with the spread of Christianity.

Limenia Island
It is an island 25 km to Yalvaç, in Gaziri Location in Hoyran Lake and the lake shore is accessed via an asphalt road. Except the city walls surrounding the island, there is a temple built in the name of Artemis and other building ruins on the island.

Address: Hükümet Cad. No. 4 Yalvaç county / Isparta / Turkey

Phone:  +90 246 441 50 59

Fax: +90 246 411 49 37

This informations was taken from Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Culture And Tourism and arrangement by Travel in Anatolia

Tekirdağ – Tekirdağ History

The Marmara Region has been an area suitable for human settlement in all ages with its strategic location on the sea and land transportation routes, climate, lands suitable for agriculture, and richness of game animals.

Even though a full chronology cannot be obtained about the pre – historical and historical settlements within the provincial boundaries of Tekirdağ, they are all listed. There are no settlements from the Paleolothic (the Old Stone Age) and the Neolothic (the First Settlements) periods but findings from the Chalcolithic Age (5000 – 3000) were discovered at the the Güngörmez and the Güneşkaya caves at the Saray district, and the Toptepe tumulus which is at a distance of 4-5 km from Marmara Ereğlisi. Excavations at the caves would most probaly reveal remains from the Paleolithic Age.

According to the surface investigations at the shores, Tekirdağ was densely settled during the Early Bronze (3000 – 2000 B.C) Age. There was a big wave of migration in Thrace during the Late Bronze and the Early Iron Ages. Following this wave whose indications can be found in the Ergene and the Meriç basins, a dark period started to settle in.

During this period, despite the presence of the institutionalized states (Hittite) in Anatolia, tribes defined as Proto – Trak, which were more backward in terms of social organization lived in Thrace, displaying the most signficant disparity between Anatolia and Thrace.

Information on the Traks, the natives of Trakya who lived within the boundaries of Tekirdağ, is extremely limited. Homer (the 9thmillennium B.C.) in his epic the Illiad mentions the horse raising Traks, their king Rhesos, the heroes of Thrace and their warrior characteristics.

The historian Heredo (490 – 435BC) claims that the Traks were the most crowded tribe on the earth after the Indians but one which could never establish unity. It is true that the Traks were far from establishing a unified society and were divided into numerous mutually hostile clans.

In the second half of the 5th millennium B.C., after Thrace was free from the Persian invasion, they managed to establish a Kingdom of Thrace under the Odrys dynasty, which was the most powerful of the clans.

Thrace opened up to trade after the establishment of the Greek colonies in the 7th millennium B.C. During that period, the cities were built by the colonists from Megara and Samas along the Marmara coast of Thrace (Selymbria, Bisanthes, Perinthos). However, according to the antique sources (Homer, Herodotus, Ksenophanes), and archaeological findings, there were cities inhabited by the native population before the colony cities were built and the native population was in perpetual conflict both among themselves and with the newcomers. During the years 514 – 513 B.C., following the İskit campaign of the Persian King Dareus, Thrace came under the Persian dominance. This dominance continued until the Athica – Delos Marine Unity, which the Athenias established in 478 – 477 B.C against the Persian threat, and managed to drive the Persians out of Thrace. In 342 B.C the Macedonian King Philip II annexed the Thracian lands to his own, and took the Odrys kingdom under his control. After the death of Alexander, Thrace went under the dominance of Lysimachos. Developments starting with the appointment of a governor of Thrace by the Roman Emperor Tiberius in the year 19 terminated in establishment of a Roman province in 46 by the Emperor Cladius and Thrace remained under the Roman rule for many years. When the empire was divided into two in the year 395, Thrace was within the boundaries of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine), and it came under the Ottoman dominance after the conquest of İstanbul in 1453.

The oldest known name of Tekirdağ is Rodos. It later took the name Tefudağ, which changed into Tekirdağ during the Republican period.

This informations was taken from Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Culture And Tourism and arrangement by Travel in Anatolia